Participation in Extracurricular Activities

    In general, we define education as the process of bringing cultural values ​​into the individual. In this process, individuals; they acquire talent, skill, attitude, aesthetic sensitivity and various positive behaviors. Schools provide opportunities for students to develop their interests and skills, as well as academic information with their educational experiences. Thus, while schools carry out their teaching functions through lessons, they carry out their educational functions by integrating them with extracurricular activities (Akar & Nayir, 2015).

    Extracurricular social activities are as important as the in-class activities in the multifaceted development of the individual from an early age. Extracurricular activities are practical activities that reinforce what students learn in the formal teaching process and show that these learning is related to life. These activities in schools can be classified as extra-curricular activities carried out outside the curriculum and complementary and co-curricular activities carried out in cooperation with educational programs.

    In our country, within the framework of the Ministry of National Education Educational Institutions Social Activities Regulation (2017), “In addition to the curriculum, scientific, social, cultural, artistic, aimed at developing self-confidence and responsibility in students, creating new areas of interest, and gaining national, moral, moral, human and cultural values. and all activities carried out within the scope of student club and community service in sportive areas ”constitute the content of extracurricular activities. Principles related to extracurricular education activities As the circular numbered 2010/49 dated 19.08.2010 and no. It has been identified.

    Extracurricular activities allow the development of very important skills and competencies for social life, but also help students to realize themselves with positive psychological effects such as self-esteem and self-control (Akar & Nayir, 2015). When OECD countries are analyzed, it is seen that there is a variety of extracurricular activities in schools (OECD, 2014). For example; While extracurricular activities are mandatory in some countries such as France, Poland and Slovenia; In some countries, schools have autonomy to decide whether or not events will be conducted. Education at a Glance report extracurricular activities; includes sports, art or cultural activities as well as support courses for lessons; Unlike other countries, Hungary and Turkey in community service work with education in different languages ​​in Spain, information technology (ICT) and literacy reveals the workshop of that presented in social activities (OECD, 2014). Research on PISA results in recent years indicates that participation in extracurricular activities has a positive effect on students' learning attitudes and academic performance (OECD, 2016).

1. Extracurricular Activities in Schools

    Although lessons are taught according to students' interests and needs in line with the curriculum, there may be points in which the attainment is not reached. Reaching these points as well as providing students with knowledge, skills and competencies can be achieved through extracurricular activities. Extracurricular activities carried out in schools; It is presented as studies that support physical, emotional, social and moral development, enrich academic studies, teach how to use time correctly and effectively, add aesthetic sensitivity, and provide personal skills such as leadership and self-discipline through life.

    All activities, contests, ceremonies, promotion days, graduation days, broadcasts, music, folk dances, theater, campaigns, visits, shows, festivities, poetry concerts, tournaments, conferences, panels, symposiums, signing days, fairs exhibition, kermes, trip, project preparation etc. social activities are within the scope of extra-curricular activities in schools. In addition, in-school scouting and youth camps and sports competitions, student clubs in the scientific, social, cultural, artistic and sports fields that students choose or selected, activities carried out in cooperation with the Ministry of Youth and Sports and schools, are registered by the General Directorate of Sports. All activities carried out in cooperation with public institutions and non-governmental organizations or non-governmental organizations operating in the educational institution region for the planning of social activity studies, school sports clubs constitute the types of extracurricular activities carried out in schools.

   All kinds of clubs, teams and studies within our schools; it appears to mediate an important part of the general objectives of education.

2.1. The Effect of Extracurricular Activities on Personal Development

    Studies show that extracurricular activities improve students' taking responsibility, entrepreneurship, leadership and time management skills. These activities enable students to discover the balance in life and spend their free time in a useful way with the educational experiences they provide (Metzl & Shookhoff, 2002). The researchers stated that students who attend extra-curricular physical activities at school had more positive self-perception than students who did not attend, and that they had higher coping skills and self-esteem. These activities also contribute to the subjective well-being of students (Daley & Leahy, 2003). With healthy competition environments inherent in sportive activities, students learn how to cope with feelings of winning and losing. Indeed, losing as much as winning for such events is a normal outcome. Therefore, students who participate in the activities have the chance to learn to overcome these situations when they lose a match or are injured in any sport. These learning plays a key role in students' lifelong success. Considering the life experience opportunities offered by extracurricular activities, it is seen that students expand their interests, have the opportunity to express their thoughts and try their new ideas. Thus, students also have the opportunity to know and discover themselves better (Büküşoğlu & Bayturan, 2005).

2.2. The Effect of Extracurricular Activities on Academic Development

    Marsh and Kleitman (2003) found that students who attend extra-curricular social activities had better working habits and higher academic performance than students who did not plan their free time in a planned way. Similarly, it was observed that students who were engaged in extracurricular activities had lower school absenteeism and higher educational expectations. Research shows that participation in community work and voluntary activities has a positive impact on student achievement (Hinck & Brandell, 1999). Extracurricular activities for our children who spend most of their time in school environment make them feel less stressed. Thus, children feel better as individuals and are ready to learn more at school (Fujita, 2005; Mahoney et al., 2003).

     Extracurricular activities are also seen to have positive effects on students' higher-order thinking skills, learning motivations and academic performance (Hinck & Brandell, 1999). Extracurricular activities that bring life to school improve the problem solving and decision making skills of students and increase their academic performance (Williams, 2011). For example, it is observed that students who attend music-related activities at school show higher academic success than students who do not receive music education at times other than formal education. At the same time, researchers have revealed that music education helps students develop critical thinking skills. It was determined that these students performed better especially in mathematics and reading skills (Kelstrom, 1998). Advanced academic skills make students love the school, as well as allowing students to establish a positive bond with the school.

2.3. The Effect of Extracurricular Activities on Social Development

    It is important for students to have effective social and interpersonal skills for their  development. In this context, extracurricular activities carried out in schools; organizing school life, collaborating, working as a team, developing democratic attitudes and behaviors, preparing students for their roles in adulthood, respecting others, sharing common goals, planning and executing projects, researching in and out of school, interpersonal problem solving, following ethical rules and their environment It has educational functions that allow the development of many social skills, such as establishing positive relationships (Awbrey, Longo, Lynd, & Payne, 2008).

    In other words, participation in extra-curricular activities provides students with active environments inside and outside of the school, providing them with an environment where they can develop their social skills. Students who expand their social networks with participation in various extracurricular activities have the chance to meet students from different cultures, establish friendships and develop positive peer relationships (Awbrey, Longo, Lynd, & Payne, 2008).

    Students attending a club or team within the scope of extracurricular activities meet their needs of belonging to a group while spending time with their friends who share the same motivation for success. At this time, the team involved in teamwork to achieve a common goal.

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