HEALTH CARE

Healthcare

UN Photo / J.S. Macilvain



   A child undergoes an X-ray in an Indian field hospital in Malakal.

  “On guard of the health of the inhabitants of the whole world”
Since its founding, the United Nations has been active in global health care. The leading role in these activities within the UN system is played by the World Health Organization (WHO), whose Charter entered into force on April 7, 1948 - on this day we celebrate World Health Day every year. From the very beginning, WHO's priorities have been the fight against malaria, tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases, the protection of the health of women and children, nutrition and environmental sanitation. Many of these issues remain on the WHO agenda, with relatively new diseases such as HIV / AIDS, diabetes, cancer, and outbreaks of viral infections such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, Ebola hemorrhagic fever, or Zika fever.


   In 1948, WHO took charge of the development of the International Classification of Diseases, which became the international standard for the definition and description of diseases and general health. Since its inception, WHO has contributed to many historically significant successes in global public health, such as:

   Antibiotics: (1950) The era of the discovery of modern antibiotics begins, WHO is developing recommendations for countries on their use.

   Poliomyelitis: (1988) The Global Polio Eradication Initiative was launched in 1988, when the number of people who developed paralysis as a result of polio disease reached 350,000 a year.

  Thanks to the worldwide spread of vaccination, the number of cases of poliomyelitis has declined by more than 99% over the past period.

  Smallpox: (1979) A global 12-year vaccination campaign led by WHO has led to the complete eradication of smallpox.

  Tuberculosis: (1995) Launched a campaign to combat tuberculosis. Thanks to early diagnosis and treatment as part of this campaign, more than 37 million lives were saved by the end of 2013.
AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria: (2001) Together with other UN agencies and major donors, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is being established, becoming a new partnership structure and funding mechanism, which was initially provided by WHO.

  Child mortality: (2006) The number of children dying before the age of five was less than 10 million for the first time in history.

  Heart disease, diabetes, cancer: (2012) For the first time, WHO Member States set global goals for the prevention and treatment of heart disease, diabetes, cancer, chronic lung diseases and other noncommunicable diseases.

  Ebola virus outbreak: (2014) The largest epidemic of the Ebola virus disease affects West Africa. The WHO Secretariat is launching an unprecedented campaign against the epidemic, sending thousands of experts and medical equipment to the region; Attracting foreign medical workers and creating mobile laboratories and treatment centers. In 2016, WHO announces the complete absence of Ebola virus infections in West Africa, but warns that outbreaks of the disease are likely to continue and that countries in the region must remain alert and alert.

  World Health Statistics: Monitoring the Health Situation in the Context of the Sustainable Development Goals
  The Millennium Development Goals, covering the period up to 2015, included a limited set of goals related to specific diseases; successor Sustainable Development Goals set for the period up to 2030 are significantly wider in scope. In particular, they include the broad goal of “Ensuring a healthy lifestyle and promoting well-being for all at all ages” and call for universal health coverage.
The WHO World Health Statistics Report for 2018 notes that despite significant progress in achieving the SDGs in some areas, stagnation has been observed in a number of areas and there is a risk of loss of success. According to the latest data, the following situation has developed:

∙ Less than half of the people in the world today receive all the necessary medical services.

∙ In 2010, almost 100 million people were in extreme poverty because they had to pay for medical services on their own.

∙ 13 million people die each year before they reach the age of 70 from cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes, and cancer - most of them in low- and middle-income countries.

∙ In 2016, 15,000 children under the age of five died every day.

Other UN agencies and funds active in the field of health

  It would be wrong to assume that all the work of the UN system to support global health is entrusted to the World Health Organization. On the contrary, many UN agencies are operating in this critical area.

  Many health issues unit of measurement self-addressed directly by the ultimate Assembly and thus the Economic and Social Council, in addition as through the efforts of the Joint international organisation Program on

  HIV / AIDS, the United Nations Population Fund (reproductive and adolescent and maternal health) and the United Nations Children's Fund United Nations (UNICEF).
UN observance dates related to health

  In addition to World Health Day (April 7), annual international health-related observances proclaimed by the General Assembly include World Water Day (March 22), World Autism Awareness Day (April 2), World

  No Tobacco Day (May 31) ), International Day against misuse and Illicit Trafficking (June 26), World mental state Day (October 10), World polygenic disorder Day (November 14) and World AIDS

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